Introduction to IP Multicasting

Introduction to IP Multicasting

Basic Definition: “Sending a message from a single source to a selected multiple destinations across a Layer 3 network in one data stream”

Problem with Unicast and Broadcast Networks

  • Unicast would send one copy of each packet to every group member’s unicast address. With a few receivers this isn’t an issue, but try scaling to 1000′s of users. Your bandwidth connections would quickly become oversaturated
  • Broadcast requires the transmission of the data only once, but it has some serious issues! First, if receivers are in different broadcast domains from the sender, routers will need to forward the broadcasts. However this can lead to wasted bandwidth as well as an increase in processing load on all the network devices. Obviously this is not ideal if only a small group of hosts needs to receive that broadcast packet.

Although Multicast offers many advantages , it also has some disadvantages. Multicast is UDP based and hence unreliable. Lack of TCP windowing can result in network congestion. Some multicast multicast protocol mechanisms occasionally generate duplicate packets and deliver packets out of order.

Requirements for supporting multicast across a routed network

Multicast IP Addresses

A multicast address used as destination address on an IP packet signifies that the packet is carrying  traffic for a specific multicast application. A multicast address is never used as a source address.

Multicast Address Ranges

  • Permanent Groups: –
    • There are two ranges in permanent multicast addresses. through is used for local  (not routed) purposes. Think routing protocol multicasts. The other range through is used when the packets should be routed.
  • Source-Specific Multicast (SSM): –
  • GLOP Addressing: –
    • Can be used by anyone who owns a registered ASN to create 256 global multicast addresses that can be owned and used by the entity
  • Private Multicast addresses: –
    • Allowed for use in private multicast domains.
  • Transient Multicast Addresses
    • Remaining multicast addresses are referred to as this. These address are not permanently assigned to any application. Any enterprise can use these multicast addresses without requiring any registration or permission from IANA, but the enterprise is expected to release these multicast addresses after their use.

Manage Distribution of Multicast Traffic with IGMP

When a router receives a multicast packet it needs to make a decision about where to forward that multicast. A mechanism is required for hosts and a local router to communicate with eachother. IGMP was designed to enable communication between a router and connected hosts.

Switches also need to know on which ports they should forward traffic. By default, a switch will flood a multicast throughout the VLAN. The reason for this is because a switch will never find a multicast MAC in its CAM table. This is because a multicast MAC is never used as a source address.  This of course defeats the purpose of using multicast.

CGMP, IGMP snooping/IGMP, and RGMP are tools used to optimize multicast forwarding logic by solving the above issues.

***RGMP has been removed from the CCIEv5 blueprint***

Joining a Group

Before a host can receive any multicast traffic, a multicast application must be installed and running on that host. The process of installing and running a multicast application is referred to as launching an application or joining a multicast group. After a host joins a group, the host software calculates the multicast MAC address, and its NIC then starts listening to the multicast MAC address, in addition to its BIA.

Internet Group Management Protocol

IGMP packets pass only over LAN and are not forwarded by routers, due to their TTL values. IGMP messages are sent in IP datagrams with IP protocol number 2, with the IP TTL set to 1.

Two Goals of IGMP

  • To inform a local multicast router that a host wants to receive multicast traffic for a specific group
  • To inform local multicast routers that a host wants to leave a multicast group

IGMP Version 2


  • Host Membership Queries – these messages are sent out LAN interfaces to determine whether a multicast group member is on any interface. Routers send this message every Query Interval, by default 60 seconds.
  • Host Membership Reports – these messages are send by hosts in response to IGMP queries and communicate to a local router for which multicast group they want to receive traffic.
  • Leave Group and Group Specific Query Messages -  when a host leaves a group, it sends an IGMPv2 Leave message. When an IGMPv2 router receives a Leave message, it immediately sends a Group-Specific Query for that group. The Group-Specific Query asks only whether any remaining hosts still want to receive packets for that single multicast group. As a result, the router quickly knows whether to continue to forward traffic for that multicast group.

IGMPv2 Querier:

  • When IGMPv2 routers start, they each send an IGMPv2 General Query message to the well-known All Hosts group When an IGMPv2 router receives a General Query message, it compares the source IP address of the General Query message with its own interface address. The router with the lowest IP address on the subnet is elected as the IGMP querier. The nonquerier routers do not send queries but monitor how frequently the querier is sending general IGMPv2 Queries. When the elected querier does not send a query for two consecutive Query Intervals plus one half of one Query Response Interval, it is considered to be dead, and a new querier is elected.

IGMPv2 Timers

  • Query Interval – 125 seconds – time between General Queries sent by a router
  • Query Response Interval – 10 seconds – maximum response time for hosts to respond to the periodic general queries.
  • Group Membership Interval – 260 seconds – if a router does not receive an IGMP Report, the router concludes that there are no more members of the group on the subnet
  • Other Querier Present Interval – 255 seconds – time period during which, if the IGMPv2 nonquerier routers do not receive an IGMP Query from the querier router, the nonquerier routers conclude that the querier is dead.
  • Last Member Query Interval – 1 second – maximum response time inserted by IGMPv2 routers into the Group-Specific Queries and the time period between two consecutive Group-Specific Queries sent for the same group.

IGMP Version 3

  • To use the new features of IGMPv3, last-hop routers have to be updated, host operating systems have to be modified, and applications have to be specially designed and written.
  • IGMPv3 allows a host to filter incoming traffic based on the source IP addresses from which it is willing to receive packets, through a feature called Source-Specific Multicast (SSM).

Log 1: The CCIE Journey Begins

Week: 1-2

Hours: 0-23.5

So some of you may be thinking “How could you already have two weeks of studying for the CCIE under your belt if you only just finished CCNP yesterday?”. Good question. My Tshoot studies encompassed starting my CCIE studies. For the past two weeks I have gone through Narbik’s CCIE Foundation Volume 1 and am currently about halfway done Volume 2. 

So far the workbooks have been mostly a review but it is nice to finally start labbing routing topics again. Currently I am working on the BGP labs which is already teaching me a ton that wasn’t covered in the Route exam. The current breakdown of the Narbik Foundation Volumes goes like this.

Volume 1:

  • 3560 Switching
  • Frame-Relay (I skipped this since it won’t be in CCIEv5)
  • RIPv2

Volume 2:

  • OSPF
  • BGP
  • Redistribution
  • IPv6
  • QoS

My plan from the start was to skip over topics completely that will not be in the CCIE v5. This includes:

  • Flexlinks
  • ISL
  • Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
  • Frame-Relay
  • WCCP
  • IOS Firewall
  • RITE
  • RMON
  • RGMP
  • RSVP QoS

After completing Volume 2 this week my plan is to go through the INE Written Bootcamp videos and start reading TCP/IP Vol 1 & 2

I am now CCNP!

Oh man does it feel good! My 1-year CCNP journey finally comes to an end! All in all Tshoot was a breeze and the only reason I held off on taking it for so long was because of my new job.

Next up for me is to start studying CCIE topics. With v5 right around the corner I figured this is the best time to start studying. I am not giving myself a time frame to pass but I do hope to at least make an attempt in the next two years. This journey is sure to be long and very stressful but I feel that pass or fail it will make me a better network engineer. So join me in my journey to CCIE! I’m sure it will be a bumpy ride.

And for those that are curious what I used to prepare for Tshoot. I started on Narbik’s CCIE Foundation Labs.

Sorry for keeping this so short but I am taking no breaks! I am actually in the middle of doing BGP Narbik labs :). So far these Narbik labs have been great, I highly recommend them.


The CCIE and Me

As you can tell from my last post I have decided that it is best for me to begin my CCIE training as soon as I complete CCNP.  The reason behind this decision is because in my current role I am surronded by BGP, QoS, Multicast, EIGRP, and MPLS. As we all know most of these topics are only touched on if even mentioned in the CCNP. Multicast is such a big technology in my current environment that I feel I need to bring myself up to speed on it. Hopefully this will make the studies a little easier since I am around it everyday. I am in no rush to pass my CCIE by a certain date but my goal is to complete it in two years.

With the CCIEv5 around the corner and training on those topics being limited I have decided to start studying the v4 material. Honestly most of the topics still remain the same so it really does not make a difference. I know the CCIEv5 OCG from Cisco Press is set to release in May of 2014 so I will be sure to pick that up. Here is the current training material I have to work from:

  • Routing TCP/IP Volume I and II
  • INE CCIE Video Series
  • INE Workbooks Volume I and II
  • Narbik Foundations Workbook Volume I and II
  • Narbik Advanced R&S Workbook Volume I and II

So as you can see I have a pretty decent amount of training material to go through to build a good foundation for myself. My current plan is to go through Narbik’s Foundation Workbooks and read Routing TCP/IP where necessary. After that I plan to go through the INE videos and finish up reading the Routing TCP/IP volumes. Once that is completed I am going to need to pick up three more books: MPLS Fundamentals, Cisco QoS, and Developing IP Multicast Networks. I will then go through Narbik’s Advanced R&S Workbooks while also reading through my new books. Once that is completed it will be time to move onto the INE workbooks!

Of course this is all just a plan I came up with in my head and nothing is set in stone yet. I still have other material that I need to purchase such as:

  • INE Workbooks Volume III-IV
  • Narbik Advanced Bootcamp Workbook
  • Books Books Books!
  • Other material that comes out for the CCIEv5

I am going to make another post where I can consolidate all this training material so I can better keep track of it for myself. But for now this is what I got! I am ready for this journey and I am super excited. This training alone will make me a better overall engineer and that excites me to no end. I  am in this for the long haul and nothing is going to stop me!

Happy Holidays!!!

Hope everyone had a great holiday, I know I did! Work has been going great so far and I am learning a ton. Hours are long but every second is worth it! The people I work with are very knowledgeable and helpful.  The current environment  I work in utilizes MPLS, BGP, EIGRP, QoS, and Multicast  heavily so I am very excited to announce that I will be pursuing CCIE after I pass Tshoot. I plan to take the Tshoot exam next weekend. Also I am going to make another blog post that explains how I will tackle the CCIE and what my plans are moving forward! So again Happy Holidays everybody!


Best Christmas present ever!

My First Week In Review

I have had absolutely zero time to make a blog post since starting my new job until now. I’ve decided that I am going to try and give weekly updates on what I am working on and also how I am progressing both in the real world and my certifications studies. My hours are a lot longer now because I have taken on a lot more responsibilities compared to my last job. Also the environment in 10x bigger then anything I have ever seen before.  So all my free time is taken up with trying to bring myself up to speed as well as finding time to study for my CCNP.

Most of my week was filled with meeting other members of my team as well as gathering all necessary networking tools and diagrams. I will be the 9th engineer joining the network services team. There are also three other network teams that handle different aspects of the network. So I would say the total amount of network engineers is somewhere in the range of 30-40. The most engineers I have ever worked with at a previous job was 3 so you can imagine the transition this is going to be for me.

Everyone on my team is extremely bright and talented in many areas of networking. Many also are very skilled at coding. We use a lot of in house applications that were developed by both current and previous engineers. This got me to thinking that I should probably brush up on my computer science. I had a bunch of computer science classes in college however I absolutely hated it. I am hoping that this time things may be different since I will be self teaching it to myself. I will most likely try and learn some Python in my downtime at work. It is definitely not a top priority of mine, however I feel with SDN on the horizon it can’t hurt to learn.

Besides that I am really excited to work in this environment. There is constant changes being made to the network so it will definitely be a great learning experience for me.

My CCNP Tshoot Approach

So many people have told me that I should not wait very long to take the Tshoot exam. Personally my plan isn’t to take “long”, I just want to brush up on all the Route material since I haven’t looked at it in much lately.  I have begun reading the Tshoot FLG and am already feeling bored of it. The book itself is great, its just the content is repetitive and I feel that I know most of it already. So what I have been doing is just going through the summaries of each chapter along with watching the corresponding CBTnugget. If I am confused about anything then I just look it up in the FLG book. I think at this pace I should be taking the Tshoot exam within a few weeks.

CCNP Switch Passed!

I took the test this past Saturday 11/23 and passed with about a 900. Give or take a few points. Sorry I wasn’t able to update my blog sooner but I have been really busy getting things together for my new job. I start the new gig this Monday so I am kinda nervous. The environment is a lot bigger and I will be working with a lot more engineers. So I really don’t know what to expect. As for the Tshoot exam I plan to take it in about a month or two. I really want to brush up on the Route topics as well as go over some of the Tshoot study material I have. I know some people say you should just sit the exam right away, but honestly I really don’t feel comfortable doing that. I have all this training material for Tshoot including CBTnuggets, INE, and The Bryant Advantage I really would hate to not skim through it all. I began studying on Sunday and so far it all seems pretty easy but we will see as I get farther into it. I don’t expect this exam to be too difficult.

New GNS3 1.0 Early Release

If you havn’t heard by now you should probably crawl out from under the rock you’re hiding. GNS3 1.0 is coming! And today marks their kickoff crowdhoster campaign. Basically GNS3 is offering package deals to get an early release to their software. For as low $5 you can have access to the new GNS3 software a year early! Personally I went with the Premium Package since GNS3 has provided me so much help ever since I began studying Cisco. So check out the link below and contribute to the software that we all know and love! GNS3 FIGHTING!!!


I got the job!

After a grueling 4 week interview process I finally received my offer. I was very happy to accept it and cannot wait to start! I’ll be working with a much larger networking team supporting 15 data centers across the world. The engineers seemed very knowledgeable, so I can’t wait to have the chance to pick their brains and learn as much as I can. However with every new job comes more responsibilities. My hours will become longer and my study schedule may not always be as organized as it is now. This is a positive though when  I think about, all this training I do everyday will now be reinforced constantly in the real world. I think this new work environment will also be a great starting point for my CCIE studies since I will be working with MPLS, Multicast, and QoS very often. These are topics that I do not know much about but I know are covered in depth on the CCIE exam.

I am slightly sad about leaving my current employer though. They have been nothing but good to me ever since  I started here. I have learned so much that I can’t even put it into words. Getting a chance to design and implement a full Nexus solution is something I never expected to have a chance to do at my age. However I know this move is for the best. I am sure it will be a huge learning curve but the experience I will gain on a day to day basis is sure to launch my career vertically.

I am very excited to start my SECOND networking job in the coming weeks. And as always I will post about my daily networking experiences. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to